Department of Transport

Pollution Control

Vehicular Pollution in Delhi

Know the Exhaust Emission Standards

Effects of Polltn.  on human health
P.U.C. Certificate
Maintenance Tips
Steps to reduce pollution in Delhi
Supreme Court Directions
Compressed Natural Gas
Pollution Checking

Vehicular Pollution in Delhi

Delhi's current vehicle population is more than 3.4 million . Whcich stood at 1.9 million in 1991 registring a growth rate of 7% per annum. About two-Third of the Motor Vehicles are two Wheelers.

It is estimated that vehicular pollution accounts for about two-third of the air pollution in Delhi. Due to increase in growth of vehicle the vehicular pollution load increased from 1990-91 to 1995-96. However, a decrease has been witnessed in recent years with the implemntation of several control measures (Table-1)


Pollutants Pollution load in thousand tonnes Percentage (%)
reduction as
compared to 1995-96
  1990-91 1995-96 1998-99
Sulphur dioxide


15 11 27
Nitrogen dioxide 139 207 182 12
Particulate Mater 19 28 21 25
Lead 0.190 0.362 0.007 97
Carbon Monoxide 243 351 337 4
Hydrocarbons 0.83 113 115 +2
Total Pollution Load 493 714 666 --
Emission load in Tonnes/day 1351 1947 1825 11


Know the Exhaust Emission Standards

The pollution standards for in use vehicles have been prescribed under Rule 115(2) of Central Motor vehicles Rules, 1989. They are:

Petrol Vehicles:

a) Idling Carbon Monoxide Emission limit for all four wheeled petrol deriven vehicles should not exceed 3%.

b) Idling Carbon Monoxide emission limit for all two and three wheeled petrol driven vehicles should not exceed 4.5%.

Diesel Vehicles:

Smoke density for all diesel driven vehicles should not exceed 65 hatridge Smoke Units..


Effects of vehicular Pollution on Human Health

The vehicular pollutants have demaging effects on both human health and ecology.Pollution Checking the human health effects fo air pollution vary in the degree of severity, covering a range of minor effects to serious illness. as well as premature death in certain cases. These pollutantss are believed to directly affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In particular, high levels of Sulphur doixide and Suspended Particulate Matter are associated with increased mortality, mobidity and impaired pulmonary function.

Pollutant Effext on Human Health
Carbon Monoxide Affects the cardio vascular system, exacerbating cardiovascular disease symptoms, particularly angina; may also particularly affect foetuses, sick, anaemics and young children, affects nervous system impairing physical coordination, vision and judgement, creating nausea and headaches, reducing productivity and increasing personal discomfort.
Nitrogen Oxides Increased susceptiobility to infections, pulmonary diseases, impairment of lung function and eye, nose and throat irritations.
Suiphur Dioxide Affect lung function adversely.
Particulate Matter and Respirable Particulate Matter (SPM and RPM) Fine particulate matter may be toxic in itself or may carry toxic (including carcinogenic) trace substance, and can alter the immune system. Fine particulates penetrate deep into the respiratory system irritating lung tissue and causing long_term disorders.
Lead Impairs liver and kidney, causes brain damage in children resulting in lower I.Q., hyperactivity and reduced ability to concentrate.
Benzene Bothe toxic and carcinogenic. Excessive incidence of leukemia (blood cancer) in high exposure areas.


P.U.C. Certificate a Mandatory requirement

It is mandatory for every vehicle owner to carry a valid Pollution Under Control Certificate and maintain the vehicle with in prescribed emission norms.

Q. What is the penalty for not having the pollution vertificate?

Ans. A vehicle, found to be not in possession of a valid PUC Certificate can be prosecuted under Section 190(2) of the Motor Vehicle Act,1998. A penalty of Rs.1000/- for first offence and Rs.2000/- for every subsequent offence of violation has been provided. The offence is compoundable with a fine of Rs.900/- for first offence and Rs.1800/- for subsequent offence.

Q. Where should I get my pollution level checked and adjusted?

Ans. Facilities for checking of pollution levels and issue of PUC Certificates (to vehicles meeting emission standards) are available at many petrol pumps/workshops. These authorised Pollution Cheching Centres are spread all over Delhi. The no. of Pollution Checking Centre for petrol driven vehicles are 337 and for Diesel driven vehicles are 92. Theses centres issue Pollution Under Control Certificates (PUC) if the vehicle is found meeting prescribed emission norms. In case the vehicle is found polluting beyond prescribed norms, necessary repairs/tuning in the vehicle would be required.

Q. What are the fees for pollution checking?

Ans. The following fees for pllution checking and minor rectifications have been fixed by the Government:-

Vehicles Rs.
All petrol driven vehicles 25
All diesel driven vehicles 50
Monor adjustment(petrol vehicles only) 5

Q. What happens if my vehicle is found polluting beyond the prescribed norms although I am carrying a valid PUC certificate?

Ans. The PUC Certificate of your vehicle shall be cancelled and you will be directed (under Rule 116 of CMV Rules) to produce a fresh PUC Certificate within seven days, failing whcich you shall be prosecuted under section 190(2) of the Motor Vehicles Act.

Q. What happens if my vehicle is not polluting but my PUC Certificate has expired or I do not have a PUC Certificate?

Ans. The offence of not having a PUC Certificate also attracts challan under section 190 of the Motor Vehicles Act.

Q.What should I do if I see any vehicle polluting?

Ans. You should report to Complaint Cell/Control Room at Tel No.-3930763.


Maintenance Tips

A well maintained vehicle pollute less and is more fuel efficient. While servicing the vehicles ask a trained mechanic to pay attention to the following for better maintenance and lower pollution levels form your petrol driven vehicles:-

  • Proper tuning of the carburettor and lean mixutre setting.
  • Regular cleaning of the air filter.
  • Regular checking of the ignition system with special attention to spark plug, plug gap, ignition coil, condenser, leads ignition timing & battery voltage.
  • Valve tappet clearance.
  • Steering and wheel alignment.
  • Tyre pressure and tyre wear etc.

Always go to a trained mechanic for servicing your vehicles

DOs and DONOTs

  • After the vehicle has been parked unused for a long time (three to four weeks) the engine might require tuning.
  • Switch off the engine for stops of more than two minutes.
  • At high speeds fuel consumption and exhaust pollution increases.
  • Do not press the accelerator more than necessary.
  • Do not use the choke unless absolutely necessary and also do not drive with your foot on the clutch.


Steps Taken by Delhi Govt. to reduce the Pollution in Delhi

Pollution Checking by Transport Department:

Mobile enforcement teams are being deployed on regular basis at road locations for prosecution of polluting vehicles and vehicles not having PUC Certificates.

Public Awareness:

Public awareness campaigns are conducted to raise social consciousness on the issue and educate motorists about the health hazards, statutory provisions and control measures viz. engine tuning and maintenance.

Catalytic Convertors:

Since April,1995, only those 4-wheeled petrol driven vehicles are registered on first sale in Delhi which are fitted with Catalytic Convertors reduce exhaust pollution levels significantly.

Mass Rapid Transport System:

Mass Rapid Transport System has been approved with the objective to place a non-polluting, efficient and affordable rail based mass rapid transit system for NCT of Delhi, duly integrated with other modes of transport.

Phasing out of Old Commercial Vehicles:

With a view to reduce vehicular pollution in Delhi Hon'ble Supreme Court vide its orders in CWP No. 13029 of 1985 has banned the plying of following categories of vehicles in Delhi:-

  1. More than 15 years old commercial/transport vehicles form 01-01-1999.
  2. Pre-90 Autos & Taxis from 01-04-2000.
  3. More than 8 years old Buses from 01-02-2000 (except on clean fuels).

Transport Department is ensuring the effective compliance of these directions through its enforcement teams. Govt. of Delhi is also providing fiscal incentives Sales Tax Exemption and Interest subsidy on loans for purchase of new replacement vehicles.

Tightening of mass emission standards for new vehicles:

Mass emission norms for new vehicles were introduced in the year 1991. These norms were progressively made stringent in the year 1996 and again in 2000. Since 1.4.2000, non-commercial vehicles (Cars) complying with Bharat Stage II/Euro-II emission norms are being registered in the Delhi.


Improvement in Fuel Quality:

The quality of the fuel being supplied in Delhi has been improved in last 3-4 years by way of :-


  • Introduction of Unleaded petrol w.e.f April 1995 and subsquently, leaded petrol has been completely phased out.
  • Introduction of Low Sulphur diesel w.e.f August 1997 reducing Sulphur context from 0.8% gm/lt to 0.25% gm/lt. The sulphur content of diesel supplied to NCT Delhi has been further reduced to 0.05% w.e.f. 28.2.2001.
  • The quality of petrol being supplied to Delhi has been improved further by reduction of Sulphur content to 0.05% w.e.f 1.4.2000 & Benzene Content to 1% w.e.f. 1.11.2000.


Directions of the Hon'ble Supreme Court for control of Pollution in Delhi.

Hon'ble Supreme Court has issued several directions for control of vehicular pollution in Delhi in the Writ Petition (Civil) No.13029/1985 in the matter of M.C. Mehta Vs. Union of India. These directions and the time frame for their completion are given below:

1. Strict Enforcement of restriction on plying of goods vehicles during the day time 15-08-1998
2. Elimination of leaded petrol from Delhi 01-09-1998

Phasing out/ban on plying of old commercial/transport vehicles

(i) Vehicles more than 20 years old
(ii) Vehicles more than 17 years old
(iii) Vehicles more than 15 years old



4. Ban on supply of loose 2T oils 31-12-1998
5. Supply of only pre-mix petrol to 2-stroke engine vehicles 31-12-98
6. Establishment of two Independent Fuel Testing Labs 01-06-1999
7. Obly non-Commercial vehicles complying with EURO-I norms to be registered in NCR 01-06-2000
8. Only non-commercial vehicles complying with EURO-II Norms to be registered in NCR 01-04-2000
9. Comprehensive Inspection & Maintenance facilities to be started by transport Department and Private Sector 31-03-2000
10. New ISBT to be built at Delhi's North and South-West Borders (to avoid pollution due to entry of inter-state buses) 31-03-2000
11. Replacement of all pre-1990 autos and taxis with new vehicles using clean fuel 31-03-2000
12. Expansion of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) supply outlets from 9 to 80 31-03-2000
13. Ban on plying of buses more than 8 years old except on clean fuels 01-04-2000
14. Strengthening of existing air quality monitoring stations and setting up of new stations ofr critical pollutants 01-04-2000
15. Replacement, with financial incentives, of post-1990 autos and taxis with new vehicles on clean fuel 31-03-2001
16. Entire city bus fleet (DTC & Private) to be converted to single fuel mode on CNG 31-03-2001
17. Augmentation of pyblic transport to 10,000 buses (from existing 6,600 buses) 01-04-2001
18. Automated inspection and maintenance facilities to be set-up fro commercial vehicles Immediate

Permission to ply less than 8 years old autos old autos & taxis and buses on conventional fuels till 30.09.2001 on special permits provided they have placed firm orders for new CNG vehicles or conversion of existing vehicle to CNG mode by 31.03.2001




Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) as an alternate fuel to control the pollution:

CNG (short for Compressed Natural Gas) is emerging as an attractive alternative fuel due to its clean burning characteristic and very low amount of exhaust pollution. It is a mizture of hudrocarbons consisting of approximatel 80 to 90 percent methane in gaseous form. It is compressed to a pressure of 200 to 250 Kg/Cm to enhance the vehicle on-board storage in a cylinder. 81 CNG filling stations have been set up in Delhi by M/s. Indraprastha Gas Limited as in September, 2001. These are proposed to be increased to around 94 by March 2002.


Salient Featurs of CNG Run vehicles:

Almost any petrol vehicle can be converted to operate on CNG. The conversion can be done in a day.

  • The cost of CNG kit and its installation in a car ranges between Rs.30,000/- to 35,000/-.
  • 1 Kg. of CNG is energy equivalent to 1.39 liters of petrol and 1.18 liters of diesel.
  • The price of CNG per Kg. is Rs.12.21 CNG prices equivalent to 1 ltr. of petrol are Rs.8.19 which is far less than that of petrol. There is about 65% saving on fuel bill for a car operating on CNG fuel.
  • An amount of 8/9/10 Kg. CNG is stored in 40/50/60 ltr. size cylinder respectively which is equivalent to 11.2/12.5/14 ltr. of petrol
    equivalent. vehicles can also be run on petrol in case it runs out of CNG.

For more details about CNG run vehicles please contact :

M/s Indraprastha Gas Limited,
Jeevan Bharti (Tower-II),

Parliament Street, New Delhi.